Shale gas Shale gas is natural gas produced from shale. Because shale has matrix permeability too low to allow gas to flow in economical quantities, shale gas wells depend on fractures to allow the gas to flow.
Description Related Application This is a continuation-in-part of my co-pending application Ser.
Field of Invention This invention relates to a method of and apparatus for obtaining the release of a fuel gas mixture including hydrogen and oxygen from water. Electrolysis is one such process. Other processes are described in United States patents such as 4,; 4,; 4,; 3,; and Patent Cooperation Treaty application No.
As used herein the term "fuel cell" refers to a single unit of the invention comprising a water capacitor cell, as hereinafter explained, that produces the fuel gas in accordance with the method of the invention.
Description of the Preferred Embodiment In brief, the invention is a method of obtaining the release of a gas mixture including hydrogen and oxygen and other dissolved gases formerly entrapped in water, from water consisting of: The process follows the sequence of steps shown in the following Table I in which water molecules are subjected to increasing electrical forces.
In an ambient state, randomly oriented water molecules are aligned with respect to a molecular polar orientation. They are next, themselves polarized and "elongated" by the application of an electric Potential to the extent that covalent bonding of the water molecule is so weakened that the atoms disassociate and the molecule breaks down into hydrogen and oxygen elemental components.
Engineering design parameters based on known theoretical principles of electrical circuits determine the incremental levels of electrical and wave energy input required to produce resonance in the system whereby the fuel gas comprised of a mixture of hydrogen, oxygen, and the other gases such as air test were formerly dissolved within the water, is produced.
Water in the fuel cell is subjected to a pulsating, polar electric field produced by the electrical circuit whereby the water molecules are distended by reason of their subjection to electrical polar forces of the capacitor plates.
The polar pulsating frequency applied is such that the pulsating electric field induces a resonance in the molecule. A cascade effect occurs and the overall energy level of specific water molecules is increased in cascading, incremental steps. The hydrogen and oxygen atomic gases, and other gas components formerly entrapped as dissolved gases in water, are released when the resonant energy exceeds the co-valent bonding force of the water molecule.
A preferred construction material for the capacitor plates is a stainless steel T which is non-chemically reactive with water, hydrogen, or oxygen.
An electrically conductive material which is inert in the fluid environment is a desirable material of construction for the electrical field plates of the "water capacitor" employed in the circuit. Once triggered, the gas output is controllable by the attenuation of operational parameters.
Thus, once the frequency of resonance is identified, by varying the applied pulse voltage to the water fuel cell assembly, gas output is varied. The overall apparatus thus includes an electrical circuit in which a water capacitor having a known dielectric property is an element.
The fuel gases are obtained from the water by the disassociation of the water molecule. The water molecules are split into component atomic elements hydrogen and oxygen gases by a voltage stimulation process called the electrical polarization process which also releases dissolved gases entrapped in the water.
From the outline of physical phenomena associated with the process described in Table 1, the theoretical basis of the invention considers the respective states of molecules and gases and ions derived from liquid water.
Before voltage stimulation, water molecules are randomly dispersed throughout water within a container. When a unipolar voltage pulse train such as shown in FIGS. The electrical field of the particles within a volume of water including the electrical field plates increases from a low energy state to a high energy state successively in a step manner following each pulse-train as illustrated figuratively in the depictions of FIG.
The increasing voltage potential is always positive in direct relationship to negative ground potential during each pulse.Depth, at which natural gas is located, varies from 1, meters to several kilometers.
The process of gas production meaning its extraction from the subsurface, collection and treatment for transportation starts upon the completion of geological exploration after the deposits have been identified. The Outlook for Oil and Gas By James M. Kendell out the projection period with gasoline at $ per gallon in in the reference case.
Oil Consumption petroleum fuel produced from coal and natural gas (Figure B). In the reference case, crude oil production from. Sep 16, · Month-ahead gas on the Dutch Title Transfer Facility, Europe’s biggest hub for the fuel, has lost 13 percent this year after a 31 percent drop in , according to broker data compiled by Bloomberg.
“The production ceiling put in place for Groningen has had a definite impact on gas production during the last years,” CBS said. Natural Gas: EIA, Natural Gas Annual, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production Coal: EIA, Annual Coal Report, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State Electricity: EIA, Electric Power Monthly, Net Generation by State.
The anaerobic fermentation and biogas production from biodegradable organic substrates such as expired wine, beer, bread, meat and dairy products, food oils and fats, were tested in the laboratory anaerobic models.
Ethanol fuel has a "gasoline gallon equivalency" (GGE) value of , i.e. to replace the energy of 1 volume of gasoline, times the volume of ethanol is needed. Ethanol-blended fuel is widely used in Brazil, the United States, and Europe (see also Ethanol fuel by country).