Study characteristics Sixty-one of the articles presented primary research on actual patient portals, while 27 reported on primary research not specific to a portal, such as population surveys and simulation studies that focused on identifying problems or solutions related to patient portal development.
Highlight and copy the desired format. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14 8 Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. All other clinicians completing this activity will be issued a certificate of participation.
To participate in this journal CME activity: Learning Objectives Upon completion of this activity, participants will be able to: Describe the frequency of norovirus NoV infection worldwide. Describe the prevalence of NoV infection among mild-to-moderate community-acquired diarrhea cases.
Describe the morbidity associated with severe diarrhea due to NoV infection. Identify the most common virulent strains of NoV. Describe the morbidity and mortality attributed to NoV infection worldwide.
Anne Mather has disclosed no relevant financial relationships. Top Abstract We conducted a systematic review of studies that used reverse transcription—PCR to diagnose norovirus NoV infections in patients with mild or moderate outpatient and severe hospitalized diarrhea. Despite improved safety of food, water, and sanitation and aggressive promotion of noninvasive interventions e.
Reduction of this disease will require targeted prevention and treatment strategies against the common agents causing severe diarrhea. Noroviruses NoVs and sapoviruses are genetically and antigenically diverse single-stranded RNA viruses that belong to 2 different genera Norovirus and Sapovirus in the family Caliciviridae and are collectively referred to as human caliciviruses 2.
The prototype virus of the NoVs, Norwalk virus, was identified in However, the inability to cultivate these viruses in routine cell culture and the consequent challenges in developing sensitive nonmolecular diagnostic assays hindered initial efforts to define the epidemiology and assess the impact of disease associated with NoV infection.
In the past 15 years, the availability of sensitive molecular diagnostic methods based on reverse transcription—PCR RT-PCR has allowed broader examination of the etiologic role of NoVs in epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis 34.
Much of the misconception of NoV as an infrequent cause of severe sporadic diarrhea might also stem from studies undertaken before the mids that found low rates of NoV infection because available diagnostics such as electron microscopy and antigen detection assays had poor sensitivity.
Recent data are emerging that are debunking these misconceptions, suggesting that the impact of NoV disease may be much greater than previously suspected and the disease may be more severe in some populations 46 — 8.
However, because these novel assays are not typically available outside of reference laboratories, the true global prevalence and potential economic impact of NoV disease remain unrecognized 3.
To further understand the etiologic role of NoVs in sporadic diarrhea, we conducted a systematic review to identify studies that used similar inclusion criteria and molecular assays based on RT-PCR to detect NoVs in fecal specimens from patients with diarrhea. We used the following keywords: Norwalk, norovirus,Norwalk-like virus,human calicivirus,calicivirus,NLV,small round virus, and small round structured virus.
We reviewed all abstracts to identify articles that assessed the prevalence of NoV among sporadic cases of diarrhea.
To ensure complete capture of all relevant studies, we cross-referenced all articles from the bibliography of the selected articles.
After reviewing each article, we selected studies that met the following inclusion criteria:Methods for a Qualitative Systematic Review review methods that are part of, or leading to, systematic reviews: –Meta-Analysis (MA) to reach theoretical saturation and/or the identification of the disconfirming case’ may be more appropriate (Dixon-Woods, ).
Evaluation of interventions for informed consent for randomised controlled trials (ELICIT): protocol for a systematic review of the literature and identification of a core outcome set using a Delphi survey. Search methods for identification of studies.
Purposes of a Literature Review • Identification of a problem • Identification of designs & data collection methods • Identification of experts (possible consultant on a project) systematic review of RCTs, with or without meta-analysis Level II: Quasi-experimental study. METHODS: We applied a systematic review-based strategy to identify and integrate evidence from epidemiological, in vivo, and in vitro studies.
The evidence from prospective epidemiological studies was quantitatively synthesized by meta-analysis.
conduct a systematic review of the literature for immunization costing studies and tools, financial management systems and any previous methods to track the .
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review of the literature on Arab adolescent depression. We detailed four themes in this review and these were mainly structured around the prevalence of adolescent depression, the individual differences in adolescent depression, and the stigma of adolescent depression in Arab countries.