Situating Occupational Competencies Assessed These competencies are grouped into nine 9 practice areas:
Dec 19, - production, refining, transport, car manufacturing, driving, and urban Geri and David E.
Not for citation or distribution. The Challenges in U. The Political Realties of Energy Policy ………………………. Policy for Energy Transition 7. Economic and Regulatory Realities of Energy Policy………. Timeline of Energy Policy Developments…………………….
List of Acronyms …………………………………………… McElroy Why another book on energy? Energy policy is perhaps the most Janus-faced of all the policy arenas in American politics.
One face is in shadow: When supplies tighten, costs increase, or the effects of our profligate energy use become too great to bear, people clamor for relief. Suddenly the second face is in full sun, and discussion begins on policies that are ordinarily obscure and ignored.
As we write, there is a strengthening consensus that global climate change is occurring and that it is influenced by human activities, particularly the burning of fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas.
Our public policies in the energy arena and the social, economic and environmental practices they support have led us to this point. In many respects these policies have been successful. But again, there is a second, less benign face to the story.
Our fossil fueled civilization also generates high environmental costs to our air, water, and land, and not all share in its benefits. Although mountains of books have been written about various aspects of energy, they tend to treat energy policy as an afterthought.
Governments worldwide, including the U. They provide financial incentives and regulations that encourage production of preferred energy sources, limit consumption, subsidize use by individuals, or try to influence the behavior of firms and individuals to encourage efficiency and limit pollution.
Our intent in this book is to focus on those policies: With an improved understanding of these past and current policies, we believe that individuals and policymakers will be in a better position to create and implement new policies more appropriate to the goal of limiting the advance of global climate change.
One of the ironies of work in this policy arena…is that there is no generally agreed on definition of exactly what energy is!
It is a slippery, indefinable concept grounded in the hard sciences of physics and chemistry. We tend to associate the concept with particular sources of energy oil, natural gas, uraniumwhich through various types of conversions particularly burning, or oxidation produce secondary products, effects or services that we value.
The critical insight is that such sources have little intrinsic value; we value them because of what they can do for us, the services they can provide.
Americans treasure individual mobility—oil, fractured into gasoline, just happens to be the substance that best enables such transportation although, as we shall see, at shockingly low levels of efficiency.
We need to cook, heat and light our homes and offices, fuel the manufacturing and services that run our economy. Public policy impacts all of these conversions, and thus helps to shape the choices available to us. These policies reflect decisions about what kind of society we want and what we are willing to do or put up with to have access to the services that energy provides.
For example, we take gasoline powered individual transport for granted. But behind each fillup of your car lies a complex web of subsidies and regulations influencing petroleum production, refining, transport, car manufacturing, driving, and urban planning, as well as a degree of willful blindness on the part of the driving public see Chapters 4 and 7 for more details.
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