Posted on April 5, by energyskeptic [ Yet another wise, thoughtful, and wide-ranging essay from my favorite writer of the many facets of a civilization about to decline as it is starved of the fossil fuels that feed it. Although the topics are quite varied, Heinberg weaves them into a cloth that is more than the sum of the parts in explaining how the future may unfold. Juggling Live Hand Grenades. Here are a few useful recent contributions to the global sustainability conversation, with relevant comments interspersed.
One program tested in Kenya jumped out, and the Rwandan government wanted to know whether it would likely work in Rwanda as well. A randomized controlled trial RCT found that showing eighth-grade girls and boys a minute video and statistics on the higher rates of HIV among older men dramatically changed behavior: The number of teen girls who became pregnant with an older man within the following 12 months fell by more than 60 percent.
Random assignment determined which girls received the risk awareness program and which girls continued to receive the standard curriculum. Our government partners could thereby have confidence that the reduction in risky behavior was actually caused by the program.
But if they replicated this approach in a new context, could they expect the impact to be similar? Policy makers repeatedly face this generalizability puzzle—whether the results of a specific program generalize to other contexts—and there has been a long-standing debate among policy makers about the appropriate response.
But the discussion is often framed by confusing and unhelpful questions, such as: Should policy makers rely on less rigorous evidence from a local context or more rigorous evidence from elsewhere?
And must a new experiment always be done locally before a program is scaled up? These questions present false choices.
Rigorous impact evaluations are designed not to replace the need for local data but to enhance their value. This complementarity between detailed knowledge of local institutions and global knowledge of common behavioral relationships is fundamental to the philosophy and practice of our work at the Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab J-PALa center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology founded in with a network of affiliated professors and professional staff around the world.
Four Misguided Approaches To give a sense of our philosophy, it may help to first examine four common, but misguided, approaches about evidence-based policy making that our work seeks to resolve. Can a study inform policy only in the location in which it was undertaken?
Kaushik Basu has argued that an impact evaluation done in Kenya can never tell us anything useful about what to do in Rwanda because we do not know with certainty that the results will generalize to Rwanda.
Describing general behaviors that are found across settings and time is particularly important for informing policy. The best impact evaluations are designed to test these general propositions about human behavior.
Should we use only whatever evidence we have from our specific location? In an effort to ensure that a program or policy makes sense locally, researchers such as Lant Pritchett and Justin Sandefur argue that policy makers should mainly rely on whatever evidence is available locally, even if it is not of very good quality.
Yahoo Lifestyle is your source for style, beauty, and wellness, including health, inspiring stories, and the latest fashion trends. Measurement & Evaluation The Generalizability Puzzle. The practice of using rigorous scientific evaluations to study solutions to global poverty is relatively young. Misc thoughts, memories, proto-essays, musings, etc. And on that dread day, the Ineffable One will summon the artificers and makers of graven images, and He will command them to give life to their creations, and failing, they and their creations will be dedicated to the flames.
The challenge is to pair local information with global evidence and use each piece of evidence to help understand, interpret, and complement the other. Should a new local randomized evaluation always precede scale up?
One response to the concern for local relevance is to use the global evidence base as a source for policy ideas but always to test a policy with a randomized evaluation locally before scaling it up. With limited resources and evaluation expertise, we cannot rigorously test every policy in every country in the world.
We need to prioritize. For example, there have been more than 30 analyses of 10 randomized evaluations in nine low- and middle- income countries on the effects of conditional cash transfers.
While there is still much that could be learned about the optimal design of these programs, it is unlikely to be the best use of limited funds to do a randomized impact evaluation for every new conditional cash transfer program when there are many other aspects of antipoverty policy that have not yet been rigorously tested.
Must an identical program or policy be replicated a specific number of times before it is scaled up?n rural Oregon, an year-old girl wearing a pair of plastic sandals walked 13 miles to a local tavern and convinced a man she didn’t know to drive her two and a half hours north to Long Beach, Wash.
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Argue that the solution is practical, feasible, cost-effective, and workable. Explain why it is better than other. [ Yet another wise, thoughtful, and wide-ranging essay from my favorite writer of the many facets of a civilization about to decline as it is starved of the fossil fuels that feed it.
The Effects of Teen Pregnancy on Children - There are many obstacles for children of teenage mothers to face. These children have serious disadvantages in contrast to those children who come from nuclear families. March 27, Cheerleading research essay, help writing essay college application, gcse creative writing vocabulary.
Can't believe i got an english essay done in less than 2 hours that's pretty #impressive #proud without any planning. Measurement & Evaluation The Generalizability Puzzle. The practice of using rigorous scientific evaluations to study solutions to global poverty is relatively young.