This system was to differ from adult or criminal court in a number of ways. It was to focus on the child or adolescent as a person in need of assistance, not on the act that brought him or her before the court. The proceedings were informal, with much discretion left to the juvenile court judge. Because the judge was to act in the best interests of the child, procedural safeguards available to adults, such as the right to an attorney, the right to know the charges brought against one, the right to trial by jury, and the right to confront one's accuser, were thought unnecessary.
Courts and Judges 1. Courts There are five types of courts in Japan: They are situated in locations nationwide. The cases are handled by a single summary court judge. They are situated in 50 locations nationwide one in each of the 47 prefectures and one in the 3 cities of Hakodate, Asahikawa and Kushiro with branch offices in locations.
Most cases are disposed by a single judge, aside from those cases in which it has been decided that hearing and judgement shall be made by a collegiate court or cases where the crimes are punishable by imprisonment with or without labour for a minimum period of not less than one year.
They are situated in 50 locations nationwide the same places as the district courts with branch offices in locations and local offices in 77 locations. The cases are handled by a single judge. The cases are handled by a collegiate body consisting of three judges.
The cases are first assigned to one of the three Petty Benches, and those cases that involve constitutional questions are transferred to the Grand Bench for its inquiry and adjudication. Judges Judges consist of the following: Assistant Judges are appointed from those who have completed their training at the Legal Training and Research Institute.
They can take part in an adjudication as a member of a collegiate body, but are not qualified to sit alone.
However, at the present time, a special law authorizes those who have served as an assistant judge for at least five years and who have been nominated by the Supreme Court to sit alone. Judges are required to have been engaged in practical affairs as an assistant judge, public prosecutor, or practising attorney, etc.
At present, Judgesare generally appointed from those who have served as an assistant judge for at least 10 years a career systembut there is also a system where judges are appointed from practising attorneys.
Besides lawyers, experts on industrial property rights or taxes are appointed as Judicial Research Officials, and they are assigned to courts of big cities such as Tokyo or Osaka where there are particularly large number of highly-specialized and complicated cases.
They attend hearings, prepare and file the records and documents of proceedings, facilitate hearing proceedings by making the necessary arrangements before and during the hearing dates, and assist judges in conducting research on laws, ordinances, precedents.
They engage in specialized work that fulfils the scientific function of the Family Courts, such as fact-finding surveys required for dispute resolution or rehabilitation of a juvenile delinquent as well as adjustment of domestic relationships.
Public Prosecutors and the Public Prosecutors Offices 1. Public Prosecutors Public Prosecutorsare independent officials who have the power of prosecution. They investigate crimes, institute public prosecution, carry out hearings, as well as control and supervise the enforcement of adjudication, etc.
In addition, Public Prosecutors engage in administrative processes designated by laws and ordinances to act as representatives to protect public interest, such as becoming the opposing party in an action for acknowledgment of a child.
Public Prosecutorsare vested with exclusive authority to institute public prosecution. Public Prosecutorsconsist of the following: Public Prosecutor's Assistant Officers Public Prosecutor's Assistant Officers handle the investigation of crimes, arrests by arrest warrants, administration of collection of fines, etc.
Public Prosecutors Offices The Public Prosecutors Officesexercise control over the administrative works of public prosecutors. Public prosecutors and assistant public prosecutors who serve in Local Public Prosecutors Offices mainly handle criminal cases under the jurisdiction of the summary courts.Welcome to the Arizona Court System This Guide can help you become better acquainted with Arizona’s judicial system.
It describes how the courts are organized, the special functions of the courts and how court cases are processed in our legal system. This section provides information on the various functions and operations of our state courts, as well as addresses, phone numbers, and directions to each court location.
April 10, - Due to multiple years of reduced funding to the Court, Probate Examiner phone hours have been suspended until further notice. The Document Center is for storage of documents of many different file types.
Documents stored in the Document Center can be separated by folders and subfolders. Cases in state civil courts, where most debt cases are heard, grew by 11 percent over the decade that ended in , according to the National Center for State Courts.
In , general purpose courts in 17 states saw million new cases filed over contract disputes, most of which involve debt.
This paper focuses on the enforcement of civil and commercial claims in Italy as a key way to improve the environment for sustaining economic growth. 7 The "Corte Suprema di Cassazione" or Court of Cassation is the highest court in the Italian judicial system. It ensures, among others, “the correct application of the law and its uniform.