Abstract Introduction The Center for Community Health and Evaluation conducted a 3-year evaluation to assess results of health impact assessments HIAs in the United States and to identify elements critical for their success. Methods The study used a retrospective, mixed-methods comparative case study design, including a literature review; site visits; interviews with investigators, stakeholders, and decision makers for 23 HIAs in 16 states that were completed from through ; and a Web-based survey of HIA practitioners. Results Analysis of interviews with decision makers suggests HIAs can directly influence decisions in nonhealth-related sectors. HIAs may also influence changes beyond the decision target, build consensus and relationships among decision makers and their constituents, and give community members a stronger voice in decisions that affect them.
Overview Contributors National Research Council; Division on Earth and Life Studies ; Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology ; Committee on Health Impact Assessment Description Factoring health and related costs into decision making is essential to confronting the nation's health problems and enhancing public well-being.
Some policies and programs historically not recognized as relating to health are believed or known to have important health consequences.
For example, public health has been linked to an array of policies that determine the quality and location of housing, availability of public transportation, land use and street connectivity, agricultural practices and the availability of various types of food, and development and location of businesses and industry.
Improving Health in the United States: The Role of Health Impact Assessment offers guidance to officials in the public and private sectors on conducting HIAs to evaluate public health consequences of proposed decisions -- such as those to build a major roadway, plan a city's growth, or develop national agricultural policies -- and suggests actions that could minimize adverse health impacts and optimize beneficial ones.
Several approaches could be used to incorporate aspects of health into decision making, but HIA holds particular promise because of its applicability to a broad array of programs, consideration of both adverse and beneficial health effects, ability to consider and incorporate various types of evidence, and engagement of communities and stakeholders in a deliberative process.
The report notes that HIA should not be assumed to be the best approach to every health policy question but rather should be seen as part of a spectrum of public health and policy-oriented approaches. The report presents a six-step framework for conducting HIA of proposed policies, programs, plans, and projects at federal, state, tribal, and local levels, including within the private sector.
In addition, the report identifies several challenges to the successful use of HIA, such as balancing the need to provide timely information with the realities of varying data quality, producing quantitative estimates of health effects, and engaging stakeholders.Data from the Census Bureau shows that million immigrants (both legal and illegal) now live in the United States.
This Backgrounder provides a detailed picture of immigrants, also referred to as the foreign-born, living in the United States by country of birth and state. It also examines the progress immigrants make over time.
The HIA has an increasingly vital place in the future of health-related policy, making Health Impact Assessment in the United States a valued manual and critical ideabook for students and practitioners in public health, public policy, urban planning, and community planning.
Radiological Risk Assessment and Environmental Analysis comprehensively explains methods used for estimating risk to people exposed to radioactive materials released to the environment by nuclear facilities or in an emergency such as a nuclear terrorist event.
This is the first book that merges the diverse disciplines necessary for estimating where radioactive materials go in the environment. Initial Federal Efforts to Establish Health Technology Assessment in the United States The EBM and later the CER policy discussions, so front and center in –09 in the United States, are actually the latest in a long line of related proposals, policies, and initiatives begun in .
In the United States, the National Environmental Policy Act allows the assessment of health impacts within the EIA process in the context of physical environmental changes.8, 42, 43 Some state laws (e.g., California44) require the analysis of adverse impacts on humans resulting from such physical environmental changes.
This research service presents a comprehensive analysis of the market potential and dynamics of the population health management (PHM) market in the United States.
The study provides a strategic.