Chapter 1 Who Are Adolescents? To be complete, a definition of adolescence must consider biological, psychological and sociological changes. A biological definition emphasizes the events of puberty that transform the bodies of children into those of sexually and physically mature adults. A psychological definition distinguishes adolescence in terms of the developmental tasks to be accomplished, each of which relates to the central task of achieving a personal identity.
Many adolescents routinely do volunteer work in their communities. Most adolescents have values that are similar to those of their parents.
They place a high value on having a good marriage and family life, and being successful in their work. With respect to gender, more similarities than differences exist in the values held by adolescent females and males. Identity-achieved and moratorium adolescents have explored issues for themselves and are tolerant of similar explorations and differences in others.
Foreclosed adolescents tend to be more rule-bound and authoritarian than identity-achieved or moratorium adolescents. They are also more likely to be critical of those who are different from them.
What Makes a Thing Right? Social-Cognitive Theory and Moral Development: Social-cognitive theory assumes that community standards form the basis of self-regulated behavior. The experience of gratitude can motivate individuals to act in more positive ways.
Kohlberg traces moral development over three levels of moral reasoning, with two stages at each level. The levels reflect the stance adolescents take in relation to the standards of their community.
Forgiveness is a decision to release a person from a claim that justice would honor. Reasoning about forgiveness, just as about justice, becomes more mature with age. There is substantial support that individuals reason in more principled ways with age; however, their reasoning does not necessarily correspond to their actions.
Differing from Kohlberg, social domain theory distinguishes moral understanding and social convention as distinct domains of social understanding, rather than viewing these as a developmental progression, whereas the personal domain constitutes a third form of social understanding.
An Ethic of Care: Gilligan assumes females think of morality more personally than do males, emphasizing compassion and a sense of responsibility to others in contrast to a justice orientation, emphasizing reliance on rules and reason.
Gilligan traces gender differences in moral reasoning to differences in ways of viewing the self, where females tend to define themselves in relation to others, and males tend to define themselves as separate from others. As such, she describes three levels of moral development in females, each reflecting a different resolution to conflict between responsibilities to themselves and to others.
The type of moral dilemma individuals are considering, though, influences their moral reasoning more than their gender.
Additionally, moral reasoning is more closely related to gender-role orientation than to gender itself. Morality and the Superego: Freud placed the responsibility for moral behavior in the superego, an aspect of the personality that embraces cultural standards of right and wrong. The superego develops when the young child identifies with the same-sex parent.
Freud assumed the superego of females to be weaker than that of males because they are not as motivated to resolve Oedipal tensions. The intellectual changes that occur in adolescence make it possible for adolescents to view God in new ways and to question beliefs they once accepted uncritically.
As with identity status, processes of exploration and commitment determine the form beliefs will take.Adolescence is a developmental stage of life that is shaped by changes in the body and mind, and by the environment .
Throughout the adolescent years, the body and brain grow and change, and while becoming accustomed to these changes, the adolescent must learn to negotiate new responsibilities, evolving relationships, and a new sense of self.
Home:: Chapter Summary Chapter 7 The Importance of Friendships. Group Identity: Adolescents experiment with new behaviors with their friends and, in doing so, discover new things about themselves. The psychosocial task in early adolescence may be more one of forming a group identity than of achieving a personal identity.
Adolescents . Canaan Centre on tance Ae 1 TANC A N CANADA The Effects of Cannabis Use during Adolescence For over 25 years, the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA) has provided national leadership to advance solutions.
Adolescence is an amazing period of growth spanning the ages of years old. Youth enter this developmental stage with the body and mind of a child, and then exit years later, with the body and mind of an adult. Directed by Barry Jenkins. With Mahershala Ali, Naomie Harris, Trevante Rhodes, Alex R.
A chronicle of the childhood, adolescence and burgeoning adulthood of a young, African-American, gay man growing up in a rough neighborhood of Miami. Late Adolescence. Late adolescence is the third and final stage, and it occurs from ages 18 through about By this stage, adolescents have completed their physiological development, although.